Who formed the first political party in Nigeria?


A political party is a group of people with a common interest to come together with the purpose of seizing political power.

There are three types of party systems in the world and they are single, dual, and multi-party systems. however, I said democratic state the most favorable party system to use is the multi-party system because it represents the majority of interest in the society.

Nigeria also operated the multi-party system and still does that till date however it is said to have been practicing dual party systems in reality which are APC and PDP.

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It was the creation of political parties in Nigeria that lead to the full-blown fight of nationalism and fighting off of colonial power. That is why the creation of political party started way before Nigeria’s independence. In this post you get to know Nigeria’s first political party and who created it.

Who formed the first political party?

The very First political party that was first established in Nigeria was the Nigerian national democratic party (NNDP) Which was created in 1923 by Herbert Macaulay. This was a milestone in Nigeria as it was the first major political party in Nigeria.

Herbert Macaulay was able to create the Nigerian national democratic party due to the provision of the Clifford constitution and this has taken over the Nigerian council of 1914. he did it in such a way that it was very much strategized because he had to bring together small interest groups in Lagos and combined them to make this major party.

During the elections of 1922 for the post of Lagos legislative council, NNDP produced several candidates for that position and this led to them winning three seats. You didn’t just stop Thereby the elections of 1923 1928 and 1933 NNDP party won all the seats.

Why this party had democratic objective because it’s ushering people into political positions making more Nigerian representation to be in the legislative house. On a broader scale, the party’s main objective is to Foster democracy in Nigeria it’s wanted to bring about the economic, social, and educational development in Nigeria.

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NNDP continues to dominate statistics of Lagos State politics the Nigerian youth movement took over in 1938.

Short Biography of Herbert Macaulay

And let’s take a brief look at who Herbert Macaulay is. Herbert Macaulay is an engineer architect musician journalist a politician and nationalist. Just like Nnamdi Azikiwe, he is regarded as the father of nationalism. Mr. Herbert was born in Lagos Nigeria on November 14, 1864.


I was born into the family of Thomas Babington Macaulay the man that established the first secondary school in Nigeria that is CMS grammar School Lagos while his mother was the daughter of Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther named Abigail Crowder.

For his education how about attended St. Pauls breadfruit school later proceeded to CMS Grammar School Lagos. After his graduation, he wants to stay with his uncle who he worked with on trade and also missionary journey.

Robert had attended missionary School is giving the advantage to work as a clerical assistant and inDexer in the department of works.

Rabbit travel to England through colonial administration sponsorship to further his education and that was on July 1st 1890. In England, he studied civil engineering in Plymouth.

He later completed his education in 1894. Robert loved education is my also explain why he attended the royal institute of British Architects in London.

The journey towards creating of the first political party in Nigeria didn’t happen till Herbert Macauly return to Nigeria and started working with the colonial service as a surveyor of crown lands.
In September 1898 he left the colonial service after getting annoyed and perturbed by what they do to people.

The latest data a lot of anti-colonial activities and movement when he ventured into the private sector. This encouraged him to join Nigerian politics and when he did he became more popular. Due to his sound education, he was very much outspoken and his opponents stood no chance against him.

It was on June 24th, 1923 he created the first political party in Nigeria known as the Nigerian national democratic party (NNDP). It had the major aim of ushering Nigerians into the legislative council.

Not just that will also end and increasing political participation in Nigeria and most of all it fostered democracy which led to the social-economic and educational development of Nigeria and the party gained popularity with one the majority of seats in the legislative council in 1923, in 1928 and 1933. later in 1938 the party lost its prominence to the Nigerian youth movement after 8 begin mingling with the British.

How about the 7th of May 1946 Herbert Macaulay passed away and as he was the creator of the founder of the first Nigerian political parties others followed suit and a lead to the creation of more political parties some of which are listed below:


Greater Nigerian People’s Party GNPP
National Party of Nigeria NPN
Nigeria Advance Party NAP
Nigerian People’s Party NPP
People’s Redemption Party PRP
Unity Party of Nigeria UPN
Abundant Nigeria Renewal Party ANRP
Advanced Congress of Democrats ACD
Alliance for Democracy AD
Action Democratic Party ADP
All Democratic Peoples Movement ADPM
All Progressives Congress APC
African Democratic Congress ADC
Advanced Peoples Democratic Alliance APDA
All Progressives Grand Alliance APGA
All People’s Party APP
African Renaissance Party ARP
Conscience People’s Congress CPC
Communist Party of Nigeria CPN
Citizens Popular Party CPP
Democratic Alternative DA
Democratic Socialist Movement DSM
Fresh Democratic Party FDP
Labour Party LP
Masses Movement of Nigeria MMN
National Conscience Party NCP
New Democrats ND
New Generations Party of Nigeria NGP
National Democratic Party NDP
People’s Democratic Party PDP
Progressive Peoples Alliance PPA
People Progressive Party PPP
People’s Redemption Party PRP
People’s Salvation Party PSP
Action Alliance AA
Social Democratic Mega Party SDMP
Socialist Party of Nigeria SPN
Social Democratic Party SDP
United Nigeria People’s Party UNPP
United Progressive Party UPP
Mega People Political Party MPPP
Young Progressive Party YPP


However, by 1959 which was before the country’s independence three major political parties were created and they were National Council of Nigeria and Cameroons (NCNC), Action Group and the Northern People’s Congress (NPC).

These political parties were led by the flagbearers who were Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, and Ahmadu Bello respectively.


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